ECHOCARDIOGRAM: Ultrasound study of the heart. It depicts the resting function of the heart. The echo study is recorded onto a video for the Cardiologist to read. This is considered the best and most accurate non-invasive study to obtain a great deal of information about the heart including: size and strength of contractions, valve function, fluid around the heart, areas of old heart attack, and the effects of disease process. This disease process includes hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes, thyroid disease and many others. Also, we measure the ejection fraction, which is one of the most prognostic features in heart disease. There is no other non-invasive study that can offer so much information.

CAROTID ULTRASOUND: Ultrasound of the carotid arteries in the neck, used to detect the possibility of a stroke. A stroke is an attack on the brain, when part of the brain is starved of blood. Eighty percent of all strokes result from clot that block arteries in the brain, starving the tissue of needed oxygen and nutrients. The majority of these clots originate from accumulated plaque in the carotid arteries. The amount of plaque that is measured by the ultrasound is a good prognostic indicator of stroke.

ANKLE-BRACHIAL INDEX: An index used to measure blood flow in the lower extremities, which is a risk factor for heart attacks. Individuals with a high Ankle-Brachial Index are three to five times at greater risk of heart attacks.